Course Outline - IRD


IRD 101 Ancestors of the Contemporary International System 2 C
IRD 103 New State in World Politics 2 C
IRD 105 Evolution of the Contemporary International System 2 C
IRD 107 Introduction to International Relations and Diplomacy I 2 C
POL 101 Introduction to Political Science 2 R
MAN 105 Element of Management 3 R
ECO 101 Introduction to Economics 3 R
GST 111 Communication in English 1 2 R
GST 113 Philosophy and Human Existence 2 R
GST 115 Information Communication Technology 2 R
TOTAL   22  


IRD  102 History of Europe 1300 to 1800 2 C
IRD  104 Introduction to African Politics 2 C
IRD 106 Introduction to International Relations and Diplomacy II 2 C
  Any one of the following 2 Electives    
POL 104 Constitutional Development in Nigeria 2 E
PSY 106 Introduction to Social Psychology 3 E
GST 112 Use of Library and Study Skills 2 R
GST  114 Nigerian People and Culture 2 R
GST  116 Introduction to Entrepreneurship 2 R
GST 118 History and Philosophy of Science 2 R
GST 122 Communication in English Ii 2 R
AFE 124 Language Acquisition 1 0 R
TOTAL   18/19  


IRD 201 Politics and Problems of the African Union (AU) 2 C
IRD 203 Introduction to Foreign Policy 2 C
IRD 205 African International Relations 2 C
IRD 207 Structure of International Society 2 C
IRD 209 History of Nigeria Since 1914 2 C
IRD 215 Political Thought Plato-Machiavelli 2 C
POL205 Political Analysis 2 C
SMS201 Introduction to Statistics 1 2 R
  Any one of the following 2 Electives    
IRD 211 Strategies of Revolutionary Warfare 2 E
IRD 213 Post-World War II Japan and Germany 2 E
GST 201 Peace Studies And Conflict Resolution 2 R
GST 203 Government And Political Institution 2 R
AFE 201 Introduction To Food Security I 0 R
AFE 203 Language Acquisition II 0 R
TOTAL   22  


IRD  202 Principles of International Organizations 2 C
IRD  204 International Relations 1800 – 1914 2 C
IRD 206 Nigerian Foreign Service 2 C
IRD 210 Nigerian Politics 2 C
IRD 214 Insurgencies and Counter Insurgencies 2 C
IRD 216 Political Thought Since Hobbes 2 C
IRD 218 Elements of Contemporary Global Studies 2 R
IRD 220 Foreign Languages (French/Chinese) 2 R
SMS 202 Introduction to Statistics II 2 R
  Any one of the following 3 Electives    
IRD 212 African and International Financial Institutions 2 E
POL 204 Foundations of Political Economy 2 E
POL 202 Political Ideas 2 E
AFE 202 Introduction to Agricultural Science & Food Security 0 R
GST 212 Introduction to Entrepreneurial Skill 2 R
AFE 204 Health Awareness 0 R
TOTAL   22  


SMS 301 Research Methods 2 R
IRD 303 Foreign Policy Analysis 2 C
IRD 305 Developmental Problems in the Third World 2 C
IRD 309 Field Trip 2 R
IRD 311 International Economic Relations 3 C
IRD 319 Industrial Attachment 2 R
IRD 321 The International Political System 2 C
POL 315 Theory and Practice of Administration 2 C
  Any one of the following 4 Electives    
IRD 307 World Politics from 1914 to 1990 2 E
IRD 315 Revolutions in International Relations 2 E
IRD 313 Imperialism and World Order in the 20th Century 2 E
IRD 317 Foreign Languages (French/Chinese) 2 E
GST 311 Practical Entrepreneurship Skills 2 C
AFE 301 Language Acquisition III 0 R
AFE 307 Food Production and Development 0 R
TOTAL   21  


SMS 302 Statistical Analysis in Research 2 R
IRD 304 Race and Ethnicity in International Relations 2 R
IRD 306 Theories of International Relations 3 C
IRD 312 The United States in International Politics 2 C
IRD 314 Diplomacy 3 C
IRD 318 Gender Studies in International Relations 2 C
IRD 320 International Peace Keeping In Africa 2 C
  Any one of the following 3 Electives    
IRD 308 Europe in World Politics 2 E
IRD 310 Asia in World Politics 2 E
IRD 322 International Relations in North Africa and the Maghreb 2 E
TOTAL   18  


IRD 401 Nigeria’s Foreign Policy 3 C
IRD 403 International Institutions 2 C
IRD 405 Contemporary Strategic Studies 3 C
IRD 407 Law of Nations 3 C
IRD 409 Technology, Ecology and the Environment in World Politics 2 R
IRD 411 The International Politics of Mass Communication 3 C
  Any one of the following 3 Electives    
IRD 413 Nigeria and International Peacekeeping 2 E
IRD 415 International Relations in Southern Africa 2 E
IRD 417 Africa and the Middle East 2 E
TOTAL   18  


IRD 400 Research Project 6 C
IRD 402 Foreign Policies of the Great Powers 2 C
IRD 406 Human Rights 2 C
IRD 408 International Politics of Africa in the Cold War Era 2 C
IRD 410 Middle East in World Politics 2 C
IRD 412 Conflict and Conflict Resolutions in the 20th  and 21st Centuries 2 C
  Any one of the following 2 Electives    
IRD 414 Global Strategies for Refugee Management 2 E
IRD 416 Logic of World Order 2 E
TOTAL   18  



C = Compulsory
R = Required
E = Elective



IRD 101: Ancestors of the Contemporary International System 2 Units
A brief survey of the contemporary international system to highlight some earlier answers to the problem of co-existence, order and peace; focus on previous examples of arrangements for organizing relations. The Chou system; the Greek City States; the Roman empire; Assyrian, Persian world, Renaissance Italy etc. Particular emphasis will be placed on its Euro-centric origins as well as the factors, which have led to the globalization of that system.
IRD 102: History of Europe 1300 to 1800                     2 Units
Ideas, concepts and institutions which influenced the evolution of Europe and sustained it up to the era of the French Revolution and beyond; feudalism, the church; cities, humanism, renaissance; reformation; the commercial and scientific revolutions; absolutism, enlightenment; industrial revolution; the advent of the principle of nationality and the globalization of the international system.
IRD 103: New States in World Politics        2 Units
The collapse of imperial rule in Asian and African countries, forms of government in the new states, their main preoccupations, their role in international order; U.N., international law, international military order, international economic order, international morality; their role as producers or consumers of international order, the contemporary new statehood, neutralism and nonalignment, imperialism and neo-colonialism.
IRD 104: Introduction to African Politics 2 Units
The origins, nature and problems of African Politics; problems of colonialism, neo-colonialism and apartheid; Succession to power, military rule etc.; Africa’s lingering dependence on the former metropolis, and Africa in International Politics.
IRD 105: Evolution of the Contemporary International System 2 Units
The evolution of the contemporary international system from 1648 up to the end of the Second World War; particular emphasis on the European International System and factors which led to the globalization of that system by the end of 1945.
IRD 106: Introduction to International Relations and Diplomacy II 2 Units
This course introduces students to International Relations and Diplomacy as an art with emphasis on relations among states before the Common era. It also examines international relations among ancient city-states and issues beyond narrow military strategies.
IRD 107: Introduction to International Relations and Diplomacy I  2 Units
Historical evolution of International Relations and Diplomacy as distinct field of academic studies, the question of war and peace as well as the earliest approaches to the study of international relations will be discussed.
IRD 201: Politics and Problems of the African Union (AU)               3 Units
The origin of African Unity, the conflicting national and bloc politics within the OAU, Anglophone/Francophone dichotomy, Arab-African states and Black African states; analyses of the OAU as a regional organization, the transformation into the African Union and the challenges of globalization.
IRD 202: Principles of International Organizations 2 Units
This course is intended to introduce the basic theories and structure of international organization. It will involve discussions of the following areas; Basic approaches and theories; Legalism, Functionalism and collective security, inter-governmental organizations, membership, Constitutions, Finance and power; International civil service; World orders and codes of conduct; Current problems and prospective analysis.
IRD 203 : Introduction to Foreign Policy Analysis   3 Units
Nature of foreign policy as an activity, purpose and determinants of foreign policy, internal and external pressures. Decision-making in foreign policy, different theories and categories, which may be employed.  Some selected cases- the American decision to go to war in Korea in 1950, the Cuban Missile Crisis 1962. The British decision to join the NEC 1961-1970, the French decision to withdraw from the integrated NATO command structure in 1960, Israel’s decision to go to war in June 1967, Allied attack on Iraq etc.
IRD 204: International Relations, 1800 – 1914 3 Units  
Actors and their behaviour within the international political arena, conflict resolution, etc.The major historical, intellectual and sociological developments which have shaped relations between nations, particularly the industrial and technological revolution; the spread of nationalism, the break up of the European empires and the rise of the superpowers.
IRD 205:   African International Relations 3 Units
Analysis of the regional, continental and global foreign policy goals and objectives of African States. Emphasis is given to the issues of external intervention, problems of regional integration and the major conflicts/collaboration within and between states and the implications for the continent. The role of sub-regional power brokers will be examined as well as roles in the global system, the UN and the non-aligned movement. Similarly, the following will be examined: the dynamics of intra-regional cooperation, the interplay of domestic and international politics, the nature of regional order.
IRD 206: Nigerian Foreign Service 2 Units
Examines the meaning, origin and development of Nigeria’s foreign service. It looks into its roles, problems and prospects in the changing Nigerian environment; the Nigerian ambassador and his tasks; and career Versus Non-career Diplomats.
IRD 207: Structure of International Society 2 Units
The major historical, intellectual and sociological developments which have shaped relations between nations, particularly the industrial and technological revolution; the spread of nationalism, the breakup of the European empires and the rise of the superpowers
IRD 209: History of Nigeria since 1914                              3 Units
The study is about a consideration of Nigerian economic and political experience under British Colonial rule and the examination of the major developments in the country since 1914 until recent time.
IRD 210: Nigerian Politics 2 Units
The course focuses on federal arrangement and division of power, critical issues in Nigerian politics i.e. Census, elections; education; representation and representativeness, religion and ethnic relations etc.
IRD 211: Strategies of Revolutionary Warfare                                                                                                                        2 Units
The course deals with the causes, typologies and dimensions of revolutionary warfare. Factors that make for the success or failure of revolutionary warfare are equally discussed
IRD 212: Africa and International Financial Institutions        2 Units                                                                   
This course will focus on how loans have affected development in Africa with particular reference to international financial body such as the World Bank, IMF and Paris Club. The impact of foreign debt on Africa since independence should also be evaluated.
IRD 213: Post-World War II Japan and Germany 2 Units                                                                          
The course is a study of post-World War II Japan and Germany experiences, modernisation, nationalism, economic expansion and post-World War II recovery as a model in societal transformation.
IRD 214: Insurgency and Counter Insurgency                            2 Units                                                                  
A critical survey of the causes of insurgency and the rise of militancy.The socio-political, economic and ideological dimension. The effect, significance and strategies to counter insurgency
IRD 215: Political Thought: Plato-Machiavelli 2 Units                                                                  
The course is a general survey of Classical and Medieval thought up to the fifteenth century with a focus on individual thinkers; pre-occupations of political thought; the language and methods of political analysis
IRD 216: Political Thought Since Hobbes 2 Units                                                                   
The course is a critical analysis of post 17th century normative political thought with emphasis on liberal democratic traditions; Marxism-Leninism and the thoughts of people like Fanon, Senghor, Nkrumah etc
IRD 218: Elements of Contemporary Global Studies 2 Units                                                                  
The course will focus on issues of Contemporary global interest such as Globalisation, terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, Environmental Degradation, HIV/AIDS, Malaria etc.
IRD 220: Foreign Languages (French / Chinese) 2 Units                                                                  
The course introduces students to basic and intermediate knowledge of the French/Chinese language; It builds their competence, particularly in communication in the language both in writing and in speech.
IRD 303: Foreign Policy Analysis               3 Units
Nature of foreign policy as an activity; purpose, aim and determinants of foreign policy; internal and external pressure.Decision making in foreign policy, different theories and categories, which may be employed. Selected cases to be examined are; The American decision to go to war in Korea (1950), the Cuban missile crisis (1962), British decision to join EEC. (1961 – 1967), French withdrawal from NATO (1966), Israel decision for 1967 war, the Gulf war, etc.
IRD 304: Race and Ethnicity in International Relations 2 Units
Consideration of major theoretical perspectives and approaches to the study of race and ethnicity in the international society is the central focus. Others will include ethnographic principles and multiracial conflict and collaboration. Case studies of race and ethnic-susceptible variables in international political, diplomatic, economic and cultural (sports) activities; culture and foreign policy behaviour, the national question and regional/international stability, the issue of Reparations in a changing world order.
IRD 305: Developmental Problems in the Third World       3 Units
Functionalist/Integrationist movements in regional and global perspectives, comparative North-South dichotomy (conflicts and collaboration); Political Economy of imperialism and strategies for states in the periphery of the global Economy; Quest for a New World Economic Order; Emergence and Prospects of the Newly Industrializing Economies; others will include the politics and strategies of the Economic Commission for Africa, etc.
IRD 306:  Theories of International Relations 3 Units
This course examines origins of theoretical study of International Relations. Also, the traditional, scientific and post behavioural schools in International Relations shall be interrogated. Various theories of International Relations; systems theory, functional theory, decision making theory, simulation and games theory etc.;  as well as application and utility of these theories.
IRD 307: World Politics from 1914 t0 1990 3 Units
A study of international relations since the First World War including such themes as the emergence of the League of Nations, the Great Depression and the international relations of the interwar years, the Second World War and the emergence of the United Nations, international relations and the politics of the Cold War era and the dawn of the New World Order.
IRD 308:                      Europe in World Politics                            2 Units
This course will examine Europe in the global context, history and social geography. With focus on East-West Relations and the changing political economic and strategic configurations since 1945. Regional integration, as well as the origins of socio-political changes and configurations in Europe, contemporary issues in European regional order in a changing international system, etc.
impact of globalization, economic decline and famine, refugee problems, causes, consequences and prospects. Special relations with the Arab and Islamic World and other extra-regional states. The nature and cohesion of alliance systems in the continent and relations with other parts of the world.  The rise of Islamic fundamentalism and its impact on regional stability and external relations.
IRD 309:                 Field Trip    3 Units
Students embark on academic field trip in 300 level where they are exposed to the practice of diplomacy.
IRD 310:                  Asia in World Politics                              2 Units
International Politics in Asia from World War II to the present, analysis the decline of the European colonial order in South and South-East Asia, China, Korea and Japan after World War II. It will also feature the cold war alliances, non-alignment, the role of ASEAN as well as developments in Indo-China and the impact of changing economic trends in the region, and the new strategic configuration in South, East Asia.
IRD 311: International Economic Relations 3 Units                                                                
The objectives of the course are to provide an understanding of basic concepts and policies in    international economic relations. This background will enable a better comprehension of the issues in the world political economy. With focus on general development in economics and the key concepts in international economic relations, the character of International Economic Order since 1945, the dominant states in the global economy, global economic order since the establishment of the Bretton Woods Institutions. More so, the theories of International Trade, World Trade dilemmas, GATT, UNCTAD, WTO, IMF etc. shall be interrogated. Inclusive in these are the politics of Foreign Aids and the relationships between donors and recipients; Economic Sanctions and International Enforcement, etc.
IRD 312: The United States In International Politics                                                        2 Units
The examination of the American Revolution, the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, the American civil war, the role of the U.S. in the First and Second World Wars. Also, the U.S politics in the Middle-East, its relations with the defunct Soviet Union, as well as America’s interests and presence in Africa will be discussed.
IRD 313: Imperialism and World Order in the 20th Century 3 Units
This course is about the considerations of imperialism in global politics and theoretical issues. As such, the old format of imperialism and the rise of Europe, new imperialism and the colonial empires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; as well as the concept of New World Order and its critique shall be examined.
IRD 314:                           Diplomacy                                              3 Units                                                           
This course is the study of the application of tact and intelligence to the conduct of international relations. It exposes the students to the various types of diplomacy, the tools and the agents of diplomacy. It also brings into discourse case studies of landmark diplomatic events in world history, diplomacy of Great Powers and 21st century diplomacy.
IRD 315:        Revolutions in International Relations            2 Units                                                                            
The course will interrogate the origin and development of major revolutions in historical perspective. Serous attention will be given to the Chinese Revolution, The Cuban Revolution, The Iranian Revolution, The Green Revolution, The French Revolution, The Russian Revolutions, etc.
IRD 317:         Foreign Languages (French / Chinese) 2 Units                                                                        
The course introduces students to intermediate and advanced knowledge of the French /Chinese language; It builds their competence, particularly in communication in the language both in writing and in speech.
IRD 318:   Gender Studies In International Relations                     2 Units                                                                        
The course will essentially discuss debates and issues on gender and feminism on the global scale as well as theories and concept of gender studies.
IRD 319:                        Industrial Attachment                                        2 Units
Students’ work experience
IRD 320:                         International Peacekeeping in Africa           2 Units                                                                             
The course examines the evolutionary process of peacekeeping as a security strategy in Africa from the Suez Canal crisis. Details of UN and AU combined peacekeeping and peace enforcement mission in North, East West and Southern Africa will be discussed.
IRD 321:                         The International Political System 2 Units                                                                              
The course examines the emergence and organization of the modern international system; the political processes in the international community and contemporary thought on state activity; the external needs of states and goals of states activity; the means of exerting pressures, and the forms of political relationships between states; the dynamic aspects, revolutionary movements; the external projection of political values, and the changing distribution of power and leadership; war as a contingency in international life; mechanisms for maintaining International Order
IRD 322: International Relations in North Africa and the Maghreb 2 Units
International Relations between North Africa, the Maghreb and the external world; regional cooperation and its impacts on external relations; impact of religious fundamentalism on regional politics and external relations.
IRD 400:  Research Project                                                       6 Units
All candidates are required to submit an essay of about 6,000 words on a chosen topic to be supervised by a lecturer in the Department, two weeks after the second semester’s examinations.
IRD 401:               Nigeria’s Foreign Policy                                                       2 Units
Basic principles underlying Nigeria’s Foreign Policy, determinants of foreign policy (Domestic and External); the constitutional framework and governmental structure; official agencies that formulate policy; control and coordination of policy; mechanisms for implementation; Nigeria in International Institutions; Foreign Policy and national defence; relations with major powers; impact of the changing international environment; perceptions and attitudes to the challenges of the post-cold war order.
IRD 402:      Foreign Policies of the Great Powers                  2 Units
The focus of this course is an examination of the foreign policies of the following countries:  Britain, USA, France, Germany, China, Japan and Russia. While the immediate post 1945 period foreign policies of these nations would be examined, attention would be focused on the dynamics of their foreign policies in the newly emerging international order. The politics of membership of the EU, the expansion of NATO to the former Eastern European countries will be analysed.
IRD 403:     International Institutions                                2 Units                    
The course examined the meaning of the concept of International Institution as characterized by behavioural patterns based on international norms and rules, which prescribe behavioural roles of recurring situations; international organisations and international regions as types of international institutions; differences between international organisations and international regimes; the role of international organisations; classification of international organisation; constitutional structure of international organisation,, definition of international regime; concepts in international regime: operating procedures, institutions; convention; protocol, framework convention, conference of the parties; agreement in international  regime. Case studies in international organisations and international regimes.
IRD 405:     Contemporary Strategic Studies 3 Units
Consideration of major theoretical perspectives and approaches to the subject,   relationship between strategic studies and other social science/humanities disciplines. The development and conduct of modern warfare, contemporary strategic concepts: brinkmanship; containment, massive retaliation; flexible and gradual response; mutual assured destruction; saturation; escalation etc. contending approaches to the causes and characteristics of war; war as an instrument of foreign policy, relationship between force and political control; examination of developments in weapons technology and warfare since the Second World War and their impact on strategic thinking.Also, the military-industrial complex and global strategic configurations in the post-Cold War era will also be examined.
IRD 406:          Human Rights   2 Units
Historical and political backgrounds, the emergence of the modern state and man’s position in it – with particular regard to English and French writers since the reformation, especially Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau; Basic principles, and the three generations of human rights; regional human rights; promotion and protection by the UN: Refugees and human rights; populations and human Rights; human rights and development; human rights and foreign policy.
IRD 407: Law of Nations                                                 3 Units
An examination of the foundations of international law, the naturalist/positivist debate, sources of international law and its politics;  role of law in international relations, differences between domestic and international law, subjects of international law, international personality of states non-self-governing territories, international organizations and the position of individuals. Jurisdiction in general; jurisdiction over territorial seas, international waters, and space, treaties, formalities, validity, termination of disputes and international claims; law of war (use of force by state), protection of human rights; the place of law in international organization.



IRD 408: International Politics of Africa in the Cold War Era                             2 Units                                                              
This course examines international political relations between and/or among states in the international system. Issues of conflict and its method of resolution, war in international relations, armament, disarmament and arms control, politics of Cold War, deterrence and balance of power will also be discussed.
IRD 409: Technology, Ecology and the Environment in World Affairs 2 Units
Definitions of science and technology; relationship between science and technology; the growth of scientific knowledge.Application of science in production and in solving other problems; human beings and mechanization, automation, cybernation. The impact of great innovations like the printing press, electricity, photography, automobile, air transport, telecommunication, nuclear power on nationalism and war and impact on world politics; global ecological changes. Emphasis will be placed on environmental pollution, ecological damages, acid rain, depletion of rain forest, depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect, etc. and the variety of international efforts, policies and legislations to save the environment. Politics of the issues are discussed.
IRD 410:              Middle East in World Politics 2 Units
An analysis of the dynamics of Middle East politics, the historical emergence of the Middle Eastern States and government, strategic and economic importance of the region; Arab economic nationalism and regionalism in the international economy; great power rivalry, regional conflicts and the interplay of factors such as Arab nationalism, Islam, Pan-Arabism and Zionism. The peace processes and impact of the Cold War and post-Cold War international system on the sub-region.
IRD 411:     The International Politics and Mass Communication 3 Units
The politics and manipulative nature of international communication focusing on the role of technology, ideology, culture, economy and international market on the international flow of news among nations; examination of the role of communication in development
IRD 412: Conflict and Conflict Resolution in 20th and the 21st Centuries 3 Units
The course focuses on the causes of civil wars, ethnic conflict,  regional conflict and inter states war with special attention to Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, Algeria, Somalia, Liberia just to mention but a few.
IRD 413:             Nigeria and International Peacekeeping                2 Units                                                                      
This course examines Nigerian’s participations in International peacekeeping. Special attention to her contributions to peacekeeping mission in the Congo crisis, UN Mission in India/Pakistan, UN Mission in Middle East, Chad, Liberia and Sierra Leone etc.
IRD 414:         Global Strategies of Refugee Management               2 Units                                                                               
Examination of the causes of refugees and approaches to refugees’ management in pre-colonial and post-colonial Africa as well as the Middle East.
IRD 415:         International Relations in Southern Africa 2 Units                                                                               
A survey of the contemporary significance of Southern Africa within the context of great powers relations; the emergence and development of the Southern Africa regional system under the impact of the colonial powers and later. The Great Powers; the importance of mineral resources and other economic interests in Southern Africa; the interplay of domestic factors; the issue of race, international conflicts, international rivalries in the external politics of Southern African countries; SAD C and sub-regional attempts at integration; Republic of South Africa in Africa; from confrontation to cooperation
IRD 416:             Logic of World Order           2 Units                                                                                                        
Examines the changing pattern of Old and New World Order in historical perspectives, coupled with how world order is preserved through war, international law, balance of power, international organization, alliances, arms control etc.
IRD 417:              Africa and the Middle East 2 Units
The course is an examination of the development of Afro-Middle East political, economic, and cultural relations, the AU and Arab League in Afro-Arab Relations, the Arab-Israeli conflict in Afro-Arab Relations; oil, decolonization, development issues in Afro-Middle East relations


Admission Requirements

  1. Admission through UTME
  • O’ Level requirement: Five credits in not more than 2 sittings including English, Mathematics, History or Government and any other two subjects of Arts or Social Sciences.
  • UTME requirements: Candidates must score a minimum of 200 in the UTME as well as meet the post UTME examination requirement of the University. The acceptable UTME subjects are English, Mathematics with any two subjects from Arts and Social Sciences.
  1. Admission by Direct Entry
  • Advance level of General Certificate of Exanimation or its equivalent in at least two subjects, which must include History or Government and any other recognized diploma certificate approved by the University Senate.

Requirement for the Award of B.Sc. in International Relations and Diplomacy

Students admitted through UTME must have taken and passed approved compulsory courses with a minimum of 144 units while direct entry students must have taken and passed 108 units.


A minimum of 18 units and maximum of 24 units are taken by each student each semester.


This shall consist of continuous assessment and examination at the end of each semester.